March 1, 2015
By Richard K. Cacioppo, Sr, J.D.
Editor’s note: In November 2011, this author started working with North American and international aquatic health organizations in anticipation of the release of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control’s (CDC’s) recently published Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC). His focus was the need to improve methodology and equipment to properly clean public swimming pools. His first step was to found the Center for Public and Lodging Pool Study (CPLPS), headquartered in Princeton, N.J. The CPLPS is currently working with several major manufacturers of robotic cleaners and handheld, extended-reach pool and spa vacuums to conduct a survey in the U.S. and Canada (visiting many of the former Canadian Pacific and Grand Trunk Railway hotels and resorts) on the methods and equipment being used to clean pools in the most elite hotels and resorts in both countries. As part of this effort, these facilities are being supplied with product at no cost for evaluation purposes. He is also collaborating with National Sanitation Foundation International (NSF International) to establish standards and protocol for testing and certification of pool cleaners and vacuums.
Pool cleaning, namely brushing and vacuuming, is a science not an art. A pool (i.e. the water) is a living thing as it constantly changes. Beyond the water and the supporting structure, every pool is composed of millions of living and non-living organisms. Some are innocuous, while others are deadly. Pool water is exposed to every change in the surrounding environment—from temperature and humidity to wind and precipitation, but most of all, bather loads. Indoor pools are less affected by weather and the environment, and more so by their own surroundings as they are restricted to a confined space. It is almost like a reverse process. What is in the pool water evaporates into the air in the indoor space and is inhaled by bathers and pool personnel.
Pool operators have a responsibility to their employers and, most importantly, bathers who use the pool (and spa) facility. An improperly cleaned pool is a breach of responsibility. This can result in financial losses to the organization, and possibly even criminal prosecution.
Failure to properly clean a pool allows dangerous contaminants to remain in the water or even evaporate into the air after it passes through the pool’s circulation system. In fact, there is a misconception that most filtration systems will sufficiently remove all contaminants from the pool. However, this is not the case and there are several problems with relying solely on the main pump and filter. For example:
Most pools, when they are being used during the day, are not properly maintained—other than those with state-of-the-art automatic controllers that help pool operators monitor and correct water imbalance, sanitation, lights, pumps, heaters, modes (between spas and pools) and valve actuators. Even the most responsible pool operators monitor proper sanitation not more than a few times per day, some at far greater intervals. In the summer, when bather loads hit peak levels, most pools operate at least 12 hours per day. It is during this time when they are rarely cleaned. Between regular sanitation checks and any corrective measures, bathers can be exposed to whatever is floating in the water or attached to the pool’s walls, steps, and floors as well as any cracks, crevices, and corners.
It is impossible to manually brush the entire surface of a pool (i.e. walls, floor, and other areas) on a regular basis as there is simply too much area to cover. Further, even if it were possible, workers are limited to what they can see and, in most cases, if any area of the pool appears to be dirt-free, it will not likely be cleaned. Pool cleaning is one of the three main disciplines of proper water hygiene, the other two being sanitation and filtration.
As noted in this author’s 2011 short book, A Brief History of Pool Cleaners, the first pool cleaner was patented in the United States in 1912 and the first major investigation into pool hygiene was addressed by the American Public Health Association (APHA) the same year. Thereafter, the organization started creating reports and proposals to develop laws and guidelines for proper pool hygiene and safety. In September 2014, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) released the Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC). (This author is a member of the Constitutional Committee of the Conference on the MAHC to modify and implement it.)
Commencing in the APHA’s first official report in 1921, which was issued in narrative form by its Joint Committee of Safety Engineers, and continuing through 1984, nine additional reports were issued. In almost each case, it was highly recommended that all commercial pools use pool vacuums on a regular basis.
A current study being conducted in Canada and the U.S. by the Center for Public and Lodging Pool Study (CPLPS) has revealed many pools at the most elite hotels and resorts are way behind the times relative to pool maintenance. According to this author, the study estimates only one per cent of all of these facilities currently use robotic pool cleaners, while the remaining opt to clean their pools manually.
Fairmont Hotels & Resorts, a Toronto-based operator of luxury hotels and resorts, has been invited to participate in the CPLPS study and is being offered a complimentary high-end robotic pool cleaner as well as a handheld pool and spa commercial vacuum, which are ideal for commercial pool operators and service professionals who manage both public and private pools.
As a result, several other facilities have proactively started to incorporate robotic pool cleaners into their pool maintenance routines.
Robotic pool cleaners can be easily incorporated into the maintenance protocol of any medium-to-large aquatic facility. Their operation is simple: plug it in, program the unit for coverage and length of operating time, and drop it in the water. For example, a typical YMCA pool might be 23 m (75 ft) long, have more than 329,330 L (87,000 gal) of water, and see heavy usage in terms of swimming lessons, water aerobics, swim meets, etc. At the end of the day, after all swimmers have exited the pool, the facility manager/operator starts the daily pool cleaning regimen—in compliance with provincial health codes—before the pool can be reopened the next day.
|Benefits of using robotic pool cleaners|
The daily closing routine typically involves testing and treating the water. However, one of the latest best management practices (BMPs) used by facility managers is to start the pool cleaning routine by placing a robotic cleaner into the pool first, before performing any other maintenance.
Alex Sutherland, a certified pool operator® (CPO®) and director of facility services for Family YMCA in St. Thomas, Ont., now has his staff start their pool closing routine by plugging in a robotic cleaner and placing it in the centre of the pool first. In one of the United States’ grand hotels, The Homestead in Warm Springs, Va., maintained by another property management company like Fairmont, an hour after the facility closes, the manager directs a large crew to spend hours manually cleaning the pools. This is the rule, not the exception in most lodging facility pools.
|Main Pump and Filter
|Ability to remove dangerous and unsightly debris and contaminants between two and 20 microns||None||None||High||High|
|Direct filtering ability||None||High||High||High|
|Brushing ability for visible debris||High||None||High||High|
|Brushing ability for invisible debris||None||None||High||High|
|Ability to clean corners, steps, and in and around ladders||Low||None||Low-moderate||High|
|Vacuuming ability of surfaces (e.g. walls, floors, steps, etc.)||None||None||High||High|
|Scrubbing of waterline||None||None||Moderate (for wall-climbing models)||Moderate (with attachment)|
|Maintenance requirement||Low||High||Low||Very low|
|Reduction or elimination of backwashing and cleaning||None||None||High||Moderate|
|Electricity cost per year||Moderate||High||Very low||None|
|Labour cost per year for each labourer||28000||N/A||28400||547.5|
|Electricity savings per year||None||None||93 per cent*||25 per cent|
|*When used with a variable-speed pump.|
“We started using robotic cleaners three years ago when regulations changed and we could no longer use our suction-side cleaning system due to the potential risk of entrapment,” says Sutherland, whose facility is open 16 hours a day, 364 days a year. “Before we started using robotic cleaners, the 25-m (82-ft) pool was manually vacuumed three times per week, taking approximately two hours each time, and we didn’t necessarily get every square inch of the pool either.” (Author’s note: suction and pressure side automatic pool cleaners are designed and almost universally used for residential pools.)
By using a robotic pool cleaner, Sutherland feels like he has hired a worker who continually cleans the pool seven-to-eight hours every night without taking breaks. That said, robotic cleaners can be programmed to run any length of time and most aquatic facility operators leave the unit in the pool to operate overnight. Once it has completed its cleaning cycle, the unit should be removed from the pool, drained, and stored for the next day’s use.
According to Richard Deakin, commercial project manager at Hollandia Pools in Toronto, most of his customers have started to incorporate the use of robotic cleaners into their regular maintenance programs as well.
“Our customers tend to be those who are proactively working to ensure the highest water and air quality at their facilities—above and beyond what is dictated by the board of health,” says Deakin. “Robotic cleaners are just another tool to ensure the cleanest pool possible using today’s technology, in addition to ultraviolet (UV) light, chemical controllers, etc.”
Another benefit of robotic cleaners is at times commercial pools can become so dirty they require more than one full cleaning; therefore, a nice feature to look for in a robotic cleaner is a ‘time delay’ option which allows the user to set the cleaner to start up again, three to five hours after completing the first cleaning. This allows any dirt that has been lifted to settle back down to the pool floor to be picked up on the second pass.
“The robotic cleaner has become central to our entire system of cleaning,” says Sutherland, who owns two units just in case one fails for any particular reason. “A robotic cleaner is a piece of equipment just like any other which needs belts, cords, and other parts that may need to be changed and/or repaired. We can no longer survive a day without our robotic cleaner, so having a backup unit allows us to always be prepared.”
On another note, by eliminating the time-consuming task of manually cleaning the pool, a robotic pool cleaner can provide a service professional with additional time to work on other aspects involved in maintaining an aquatic facility.
“We have gained six-plus hours for pool maintenance, which has allowed me to redirect maintenance staff to clean other areas of our facility such as the change rooms,” says Sutherland. “We understand that first impressions are important and we want to be sure our customers always come into a clean change room every morning.
“Further, staff can now also focus on water chemistry, pool safety checks, and general interaction with customers. Plus, the cleaner the pool is, the happier and healthier our customers are.”
Richard K. Cacioppo, Sr, J.D., is an industry authority on the science of pool cleaning. He has several certifications and accreditations on pool operator, operation, and health and safety from many of the industry’s aquatic and health organizations. Cacioppo is a certified instructor with the National Swimming Pool Foundation,™ (NSPF™), which will soon publish his latest book Grand Hotels, Great Pools. He can be contacted via e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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